Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=TRIQyDcAAAAJ&hl=en
SPICEInverse: Synthesis of an Accelerated Multiplexed Impedance Measurement Technique for Wearable Low-Power Electrochemical Systems
Wearable devices are easy to use, small, low power devices that can benefit people in their everyday lives. They are made with small form factor, comfortable fit, and unparalled function in mind. The inherent challenge in making a better device is to provide an overview of the user's health for an elongated period of time with minimal recharging or replacement of sensors. Sensors made by semiconductor processes such as accelerometers, thermometers and photoplethysmogram (PPG) have been the pillars of the commercial wearable industry; however, these fail to interact with actual biological samples. A need for analog front-ends tailored for biosensors has risen in recent years. These rely on antigen-antibody interactions. This work demonstrates how a relatively large number of antibody-functionalized biosensors can be interfaced in size-constrained circuit design more efficiently than a row-column decoding scheme.
D. Sankhala, P. Rice, S. Muthukumar and S. Prasad, "SPICEInverse: Synthesis of an Accelerated Multiplexed Impedance Measurement Technique for Wearable Low-Power Electrochemical Systems," 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Sevilla, 2020, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/ISCAS45731.2020.9180901.
A Sweat-based Wearable Enabling Technology for Real-time Monitoring of IL-1β and CRP as Potential Markers for Inflammatory Bowel Disease
More than 1.2 million people in the United States are affected by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Inflammatory bowel disease has a natural course characterized by alternating periods of remission and relapse. Currently, disease flares are unpredictable as they occur in a random way. Further, current testing methods and practices lack the ability for real-time tracking of flares. There exists no technology that can be utilized for continuous monitoring of biomarkers, as most of these rely on samples such as blood, feces, and testing methods by which continuous monitoring is not feasible. Cytokines play a key role in IBD; the development, recurrence, and exacerbation of the inflammatory process are orchestrated by their levels in time and space. Cytokines are also present in sweat. We hypothesize that demonstrating real-time continuous monitoring of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and C-reactive protein (CRP) may help create an enabling technology to track inflammation in IBD patients and identify flare-ups and assess efficacy of therapy.
Badrinath Jagannath, MS, Kai-Chun Lin, PhD, Madhavi Pali, PhD, Devang Sankhala, MS, Sriram Muthukumar, PhD, Shalini Prasad, PhD, A Sweat-based Wearable Enabling Technology for Real-time Monitoring of IL-1β and CRP as Potential Markers for Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Volume 26, Issue 10, October 2020, Pages 1533–1542, https://doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izaa191
AWARE: A Wearable Awareness with Real-time Exposure, for monitoring alcohol consumption impact through Ethyl Glucuronide detection
Here we demonstrate for the first time a dynamic monitoring of the ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for a more robust evaluation of alcohol consumption, compared to conventional methods. A wearable biosensor device capable of reporting EtG levels in sweat continuously via low power impedance spectroscopy is reported. The custom hardware was compared against a conventional benchtop potentiostat and demonstrated comparable results in the application of EtG detection in low volume sweat. The device successfully differentiated three distinct EtG concentrations correlating to simulated drinking scenarios estimated to be 1, 2, and 3 standard U.S. drinks consumed over a duration of 60 min, with p < 0.0001. This device has the potential to enable moderate drinkers to engage in guided decision-making, based on objective data, to address the needs of alcohol-sensitive populations. The device also will serve as a tool for researchers to better understand and characterize the relationship between sweat EtG and consumed alcohol.
KC Lin, D Kinnamon, D Sankhala, S Muthukumar, S Prasad, AWARE: A Wearable Awareness with Real-time Exposure, for monitoring alcohol consumption impact through Ethyl Glucuronide detection, Alcohol 81, 93-99